2.2 Exercises on Conclusion Identification (with answers)

2.1  Exercises on Conclusion identification (with answers)

 

 

I. For each of the following, decide first if it is an argument, and then what the conclusion of each argument is.

 

1. Since “since” is a premise indicating word, every time you see it, you are looking at a premise of an argument.

2. “Meaning” and “since” are the same, for “since” has more than one meaning, and “meaning” does too.

 

3. The day after Commencement is always Mother’s Day, inasmuch as Commencement is always held on the second Saturday of May.

 

4. Painting is an art, but it’s also a boring chore, so art is a boring chore.

 

5. 30 Rock is better than American Idol because it has real writers.

 

6. People who argue over reality TV shows deserve to have empty lives.

 

7. Obama has a better chance of winning since he’s taller and thinner.

 

8. Spiders have six legs, and inasmuch as all six-legged creatures have sleepnumber beds, spiders all have sleepnumber beds.

 

9. House has less of the gross bloodly stuff on it lately. They must have hired some new writers.

 

10. Since Tom loves Jane, and Jane loves Mark, and Mark has a crush on Sarie, Tom must have a crush on Sarie.

 

11. It’s after 11. It’s after your bedtime.

 

12. Using and mentioning words are quite different, but in spoken language the difference is obvious thanks to inflection and gesture, therefore in writing, something novel is needed to make the difference apparent.

 

13. “He couldn’t have been gone long; this IV is still pretty full.” –from Law and Order SVU May 13, 2008

 

14. “Says he doesn’t watch it; then says he saw it once and that was enough –it was childish. Scalia’s a liar!” –From The Daily Show with Jon Stewart May 13 2008

 

15. Michael and Jim are both gone from the office, so you’re going to have to take orders from Dwight or else go home early. –From The Office, May 8, 2008

 

II. For each of the following, make sure the use/ mention distinction is being correctly represented with the use of quotation marks.

1. And is not a premise indicating word.

2. An “argument” is a series of statements some of which claim to make another true.

3. “Argument” means a series of statements, some of which claim to make another true.

4. Some conclusion indicating words are so obvious you might not notice them, like accordingly.

5. In German, Freud means the same thing as happiness or joy; it’s the title of Schiller’s poem that Beethoven set to music in his 9th Symphony.

6. Red Gloves is how one American publisher translated the title of Sartre’s play Dirty Hands.

7. Dog is God spelled backwards.

8. Since since has at least three meanings, you actually have to think about what it’s doing when you encounter it in a sentence or passage.

9. Because for and since –but not hence– are synonyms at last some times, what’s true about since is true about for too.

10. If there weren’t multiple meanings of meaning, we wouldn’t have to be able to distinguish sense from what philosophers call reference.

11. In general, when you use a word to refer to what the word refers to, you don’t need quotation marks on it, but when you use it to refer to itself –like when you say reference and sense don’t mean the same thing–then you do need them. That’s why number 3 above is correctly written, but number 2 is not, because in number 2, the statement is actually about arguments themselves, not about the word argument.

 

 

 

Answers to Indicator Words exercise

 

I. For each of the following, decide first if it is an argument, and then what the conclusion of each argument is.

Conclusions are bolded.

1. Since “since” is a premise indicating word, every time you see it, you are looking at a premise of an argument.

 

2. “Meaning” and “since” are the same, for “since” has more than one meaning, and “meaning” does too.

 

3. The day after Commencement is always Mother’s Day, inasmuch as Commencement is always held on the second Saturday of May.

4. Painting is an art, but it’s also a boring chore, so art is a boring chore.

 

5. 30 Rock is better than American Idol because it has real writers.

6. People who argue over reality TV shows deserve to have empty lives.

Statement of belief or opinion; not an argument because there is no support for the claim.

 

7. Obama has a better chance of winning since he’s taller and thinner.

8. Spiders have six legs, and inasmuch as all six-legged creatures have sleepnumber beds, spiders all have sleepnumber beds.

9. House has less of the gross bloodly stuff on it lately. They must have hired some new writers.

 

10. Since Tom loves Jane, and Jane loves Mark, and Mark has a crush on Sarie, Tom must have a crush on Sarie.

11. It’s after 11. It’s after your bedtime.

Either of these statements could be a conclusion intended to follow from the other one!

 

12. Using and mentioning words are quite different, but in spoken language the difference is obvious thanks to inflection and gesture. Therefore in writing, something novel is needed to make the difference apparent.

13. “He couldn’t have been gone long; this IV is still pretty full.” –from Law and Order SVU May 13, 2008

14. “Says he doesn’t watch it; then says he saw it once and that was enough –it was childish. Scalia’s a liar!” –From The Daily Show with Jon Stewart May 13 2008

15. Michael and Jim are both gone from the office, so you’re going to have to take orders from Dwight or else go home early. –From The Office, May 8, 2008

 

II. For each of the following, make sure the use/ mention distinction is being correctly represented with the use of quotation marks.   Something had to be changed in all of them except #3.

1. “And” is not a premise indicating word.

2. An argument is a series of statements some of which claim to make another true.

3. “Argument” means a series of statements, some of which claim to make another true.

4. Some conclusion indicating words are so obvious you might not notice them, like “accordingly.”

5. In German, “Freud” means the same thing as “happiness” or “joy”; it’s the title of Schiller’s poem that Beethoven set to music in his 9th Symphony.

6. “Red Gloves” is how one American publisher translated the title of Sartre’s play “Dirty Hands.”

7. “Dog” is “God” spelled backwards.

8. Since “since” has at least three meanings, you actually have to think about what it’s doing when you encounter it in a sentence or passage.

9. Because “for” and “since” –but not “hence”– are synonyms at least some times, what’s true about “since” is true about “for” too.

10. If there weren’t multiple meanings of “meaning,” we wouldn’t have to be able to distinguish sense from what philosophers call “reference.”

11. In general, when you use a word to refer to what the word refers to, you don’t need quotation marks on it, but when you use it to refer to itself –like when you say “‘reference’ and ‘sense’ don’t mean the same thing”–then you do need them. That’s why number 3 above is correctly written, but number 2 is not, because in number 2, the statement is actually about arguments themselves, not about the word “argument.”

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *