7. Exercises on Standard Form and Distribution

The following statements are in ordinary language. Rewrite them so they fit the rigid structure of one of the four standard form categorical propositions. Exactly!

For each one, state which terms are distributed.

1. US presidents are always men.

2. Robins are not mammals.

3. Every jazz fan loves Thelonious Monk.

4. Some Sherlock Holmes fans love Adrian Monk.

5. No one who eats sashimi is vegetarian.

6. Philosophers who write novels are famous.

7. “Truthiness” doesn’t apply in all contexts.

8. The Daily Show is quite amusing.

9. Feathers are not heavy.

10. He who hesitates is lost.

11. Only men play professional football.

12. None but citizens may vote.

13. Only students can eat in Seacobeck.

14. You can’t run for President if you are not at least 35 years old.

15. Whoever runs for President is ambitious.

16. Stephen Carter’s novels offer an interesting portrait of the black bourgeoisie.

17. Antique dealers can’t run for mayor.

18. Emoticons annoy everyone.

19. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

20. The skies are not cloudy all day.

 

 

Answers

1. US presidents are always men.

All US Presidents are men.  subject

2. Robins are not mammals.

No robins are mammals.  both

3. Every jazz fan loves Thelonious Monk.

All jazz fans are lovers of Thelonious Monk.  subject

4. Some Sherlock Holmes fans love Adrian Monk.

Some Sherlock Holmes fans are people who love Adrian Monk.    neither

5. No one who eats sashimi is vegetarian.

No sashimi eaters are vegetarians.    both

6. Philosophers who write novels are famous.

All novel-writing philosophers are famous people.  subject

7. “Truthiness” doesn’t apply in all contexts.

No thing that is “truthiness” is a thing that applies in all contexts.   both

 

8. The Daily Show is quite amusing.

All shows that are the Daily Show are quite amusing shows.   subject

9. Feathers are not heavy.

No feathers are heavy things.  both

10. He who hesitates is lost.

All hesitators are losers.   subject

11. Only men play professional football.

All people who play professional football are men.  subject

12. None but citizens may vote.

All people who can vote are citizens.  subject

13. Only students can eat in Seacobeck.

All people who can eat in Seacobeck are students.  subject

14. You can’t run for President if you are not at least 35 years old.

All people who can run for POTUS are people who are at least 35.   subject

15. Whoever runs for President is ambitious.

All people who run for POTUS are ambitious people.   subject

16. Stephen Carter’s novels offer an interesting portrait of the black bourgeoisie.

All novels by Stephen Carter are novels that offer an interesting portrait of the black bourgeoisie.   subject

17. Antique dealers can’t run for mayor.

No antique dealers are people who can run for mayor .   both

18. Emoticons annoy everyone.

No person is a person who likes emoticons.   both

All people are people who are annoyed by emoticons.  subject

19. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

No rolling stone is a moss-gatherer.  both

20. The skies are not cloudy all day.

No days are days when the skies are cloudy?    both
Some days are days when the skies are partly cloudy?    neither

 

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