Validity Exercises

1. All oranges are fruits and all oranges are citrus, so all citrus are fruits.

 

2. No actors are politicians, so no politicians are insensitive, since no actors are insensitive.

 

3. Some students are people who shower every day, because some students are people with jobs and some people with jobs shower every day.

 

4. All Boy Scouts are Christians so all Christians know how to tie square knots, since all Boy Scouts know how to tie square knots.

 

5. All people who are envious are either spiteful or greedy, so everyone is greedy, since some envious people are spiteful.

 

6. All people who assist others in suicide are guilty of murder. Accordingly some compassionate people are not guilty of murder inasmuch as some people who assist others in suicide are compassionate.

 

7. Some farm workers are not people who are paid decent wages, because no illegal aliens are people paid decent wages and some illegal aliens are not farm workers.

 

8. All community colleges with low tuition are either schools with large enrollments or institutions supported by taxes. Therefore all community colleges are institutions supported by taxes.

 

 

9. If energy taxes are increased, then either the deficit will be reduced or global warming will be taken seriously. If the deficit is reduced, inflation will be checked. Therefore if energy taxes are increased, inflation will be checked.

 

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